Modelling aspects of laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings on ultrafine-grained titanium substrates
AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland.
Titanium alloys, due to their exceptional mechanical properties and biocompatibility, are commonly used to produce medical implants nowadays. However, the presence of such elements as aluminium and vanadium can be harmful to human health. One of the possible solutions could be replacing the titanium alloys with ultrafine-grained commercially pure titanium (cpTi). The yield and also the ultimate strength of cpTi can exceed 1000 MPa. One of the most promising methods in manufacturing medical implants with improved biological fixation is laser cladding in which bioactive glass coatings are imposed on metallic substrates. The aim of this work is development of a 3D numerical model of the above mentioned additive manufacturing process. The obtained model is able to predict the stress-strain and temperature distributions during the processing. A sequentially coupled finite element (FE) model of laser cladding has been developed by applying element birth and death technique to calculate the transient temperature fields used in the stress analysis. The concentrated volumetric heat source from the laser beam moving along the metal surface has been represented by the Gaussian distribution in the radial and exponential decay in the depth direction. The developed FE based numerical model is capable to support the optimal design of such advanced multi-layered structural materials using the laser cladding technique.
Bajda, S., & Krzyzanowski, M. (2019). Modelling aspects of laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings on ultrafine-grained titanium substrates. Computer Methods in Materials Science, 19(3), 138-149. https://doi.org/10.7494/cmms.2019.3.0637
Baino, F., Verné, E., 2017, Glass-based coatings on biomedical implants: a state-of-the-art review, Biomed. Glas., 3(1), 1-17.
Bellucci, D., Cannillo, V., Sola, A., 2011, Coefficient of thermal expansion of bioactive glasses: Available literature data and analytical equation estimates, Ceram. Int., 37(8), 2963-2972.
Bergmann, C., Stumpf, A., 2013, Dental ceramics, dental ceramics: microstructure, properties and degradation, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg.
Boyer, R., Collings, E.W., Welsch, G., 1994, Materials Properties Handbook Titanium Alloys, ASM International. Retrieved from https://www.asminternational.org/materialsresources/results/-/journal_content/56/10192/06005G/PUBLICATION
Cao, W., Hench, L. L., 1996, Bioactive materials, Ceram. Int., 22(6), 493-507.
Chassaing, G., Pougis, A., Philippon, S., Lipinski, P., Meriaux, J., 2015, Experimental and numerical study of frictional heating during rapid interactions of a Ti6Al4V tribopair, Wear, 342–343, 322-333.
Comesaña, R., Quintero, F., Lusquiños, F., Pascual, M.J., Boutinguiza, M., Durán, A., Pou, J., 2010, Laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings, Acta Biomater., 6(3), 953-961.
Coppa, P., Consorti, A., 2005, Normal emissivity of samples surrounded by surfaces at diverse temperatures, Measurement, 38(2), 124-131.
Del Val, J., López-Cancelos, R., Riveiro, A., Badaoui, A., Lusquiños, F., Quintero, F., Pou, J., 2016, On the fabrication of bioactive glass implants for bone regeneration by laser assisted rapid prototyping based on laser cladding, Ceram. Int., 42(1), 2021-2035.
Dorozhkin, S.V., 2016, Multiphasic calcium orthophosphate (CaPO4) bioceramics and their biomedical applications, Ceram. Int., 42(6), 6529-6554.
Elias, C.N., Meyers, M.A., Valiev, R.Z., Monteiro, S.N., 2013, Ultrafine grained titanium for biomedical applications: An overview of performance, J. Mater. Res. Technol., 2(4), 340-350.
Gerhardt, L.-C., Boccaccini, A.R., 2010, Bioactive glass and glass-ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue, Engineering. Mater., 3(7), 3867-3910.
Grasso, S., Chinnam, R.K., Porwal, H., Boccaccini, A.R., Reece, M.J., 2013, Low temperature spark plasma sintering of 45S5 Bioglass®, J. Non. Cryst. Solids, 362(1), 25-29.
Hench, L. L., 1991, Bioceramics: From Concept to Clinic, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 74(7), 1487-1510.
Hench, L. L., 1998, Biomaterials: A forecast for the future, Biomaterials, 19(16), 1419-1423.
Hench, L.L., Paschall, H.A., 1973, Direct chemical bond of bioactive glass-ceramic materials to bone and muscle, J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 7(3), 25-42.
Hench, L.L., Wilson, J., 1993, An Introduction to Bioceramics, World Scientific.
Kar, S., 2016, An overview of recent advances in application of some inorganic materials-biological and technological perspectives, J. Biotechnol. Biomater., 6(3), 1-7.
Kim, J.H., Semiatin, S.L., Lee, Y.H., Lee, C.S., 2011, A self-consistent approach for modeling the flow behavior of the alpha and beta phases in Ti-6Al-4V, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 42(7), 1805-1814.
Koizumi, H., Takeuchi, Y., Imai, H., Kawai, T., Yoneyama, T., 2019, Application of titanium and titanium alloys to fixed dental prostheses, J. Prosthodont. Res., 66(3), 266-270.
Kongsuwan, P., Brandal, G., Lawrence Yao, Y., 2015, Laser induced porosity and crystallinity modification of a bioactive glass coating on titanium substrates, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 137(3), 031004.
Krzyzanowski, M., Bajda, S., Liu, Y., Triantaphyllou, A., Mark Rainforth, W., Glendenning, M., 2016, 3D analysis of thermal and stress evolution during laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings, J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 59, 404-417.
Kumar, S., Chattopadhyay, K., Singh, V., 2014, Tensile behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy at elevated temperatures, In International Conference Multifunctional Materials, Structures and Applications, Allahabad, 115-118.
Liu, X., Chu, P.K., Ding, C., 2004, Surface modification of titanium, titanium alloys, and related materials for biomedical applications, Mater. Sci. Eng. R Reports, 47(3-4), 49-121.
Madeo, A., 2015, Remodeling of bone reconstructed with bio-resorbable materials, In Generalized Continuum Mechanics and Engineering Applications, ISTE Press Ltd., London, 83-108.
Matsumoto, H., Watanabe, S., Hanada, S., 2007, α′ Martensite Ti-V-Sn alloys with low Young’s modulus and high strength, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 448(1-2), 39-48.
Miguez-Pacheco, V., Hench, L.L., Boccaccini, A.R., 2015, Bioactive glasses beyond bone and teeth: Emerging applications in contact with soft tissues, Acta Biomater., 13, 1-15.
Pilon, L., Janos, F., Kitamura, R., 2014, Effective thermal conductivity of soda-lime silicate glassmelts with different iron contents between 1100°C and 1500°C, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 97(2), 442-450.
Pou, J., Lusquiños, F., Comesaña, R., Boutinguiza, M., 2010, Production of biomaterial coatings by laser-assisted processes, In Advances in Laser Materials Processing, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Boca Raton, 394-425.
Quan, G.-Z., Wen, H.-R., Pu, S.-A., Zou, Z.-Y., Wu, D.-S., 2015, Identification of stable processing parameters in Ti–6Al–4V alloy from a wide temperature range across β transus and a large strain rate range, High Temp. Mater. Process., 34(7), 715-729.
Ramaswamy, Y., Wu, C., Zreiqat, H., 2009, Orthopedic coating materials: Considerations and applications, Expert Rev. Med. Devices, 6(4), 423-430.
Rangaswamy, P., Choo, H., Prime, M.B., Bourke, M.A.M., Larsen, J.M., 2000, High Temperature stress assessment in SCS-6/Ti-6Al-4V composite using neutron diffraction and finite element modeling, In Int. Conf. on Processing & Manufacturing of Advanced Material, Las Vegas.
Schlegel, U.J., Bishop, N.E., Püschel, K., Morlock, M.M., Nagel, K., 2014, Comparison of different cement application techniques for tibial component fixation, in: TKA, Int. Orthop., 47-54.
Shi, J.Z., Chen, C.Z., Zhang, S., Wu, Y., 2007, Application of surface modification in biomedical materials research, Surf. Rev. Lett., 14(03), 361-369.
Smirnov, I.V., 2019, Strength characteristics and fracture of ultrafine-grained titanium grade 4 processed by equal channel angular pressing—conform, Tech. Phys., 64(4), 497-505.
Sola, A., Bellucci, D., Cannillo, V., Cattini, A., 2011, Bioactive glass coatings: a review, Surf. Eng., 27(8), 560-572.
Srivastava, A.K., Pyare, R., Singh, S.P., 2012, Elastic properties of substituted 45S5 bioactive glasses and glass – ceramic, Int J Sci. Eng. Res., 3(2), 290-302. Retrieved from http://www.ijser.org
Stolyarov, V.V., Zhu, Y.T., Alexandrov, I.V., Lowe, T.C., Valiev, R.Z., 2003, Grain refinement and properties of pure Ti processed by warm ECAP and cold rolling, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 343(1–2), 43-50.
Thompson, I.D., Hench, L.L., 1998, Mechanical properties of bioactive glasses, glass-ceramics and composites, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part H J. Eng. Med., 212(2), 127-136.
Vallet-Regí, M., 2010, Evolution of bioceramics within the field of biomaterials, Comptes Rendus Chim., 13(1–2), 174-185.
Verné, E., 2012, Bioactive glass and glass-ceramic coatings, In R. Jones & A. G. Clare (Eds.), Bio-Glasses, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, 107-119.
WWW source no. 1, (n.d.). Retrieved June 14, 2019, from
https://www.efunda.com/materials/elements/TC_Table.cfm?Element_ID=Ti WWW source no. 2, (n.d.). Retrieved June 25, 2019, from https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/emissivity-coefficients-d_447.html
Yang, J., Sun, S., Brandt, M., Yan, W., 2010, Experimental investigation and 3D finite element prediction of the heat affected zone during laser assisted machining of Ti6Al4V alloy, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 210(15), 2215-2222.
Zháňal, P., Václavová, K., Hadzima, B., Harcuba, P., Stráský, J., Janeček, M., Hajizadeh, K., 2016, Thermal stability of ultrafine-grained commercial purity Ti and Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy investigated by electrical resistance, microhardness and scanning electron microscopy, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 651, 886-892.
Zotov, N., 2002, Heat capacity of sodium silicate glasses: comparison of experiments with computer simulations, J. Phys. Condens. Matter, 14(45), 11655-11669.