Modelling of transient temperature field and phase transformation change a way for residual stress management in large size forgings

Modelling of transient temperature field and phase transformation change a way for residual stress management in large size forgings

Jakub Sroka1,4, Jesus Talamantes-Silva2, Michal Krzyzanowski1,3, Mark Rainforth4

1AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059, Kraków, Poland.

2Sheffield Forgemasters RD26 Ltd, PO Box 286 Brightside Lane, Sheffield S9 2RW, United Kingdom.

3Birmingham City University, Faculty Computing, Engineering & the Built Environment, Millenium Point, Curzon Street, Birmingham B4 7XG, UK.

4The University of Sheffield, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mappin St., Sheffield S1 3JD, United Kingdom.



The paper is devoted to development of the modelling approach based on 3D finite-element (FE) analysis of the transient temperature fields and the thermally induced phase transformations as a way towards residual stress management in large size forgings. Heating, holding and cooling stages are under consideration and modelling of both the austenite formation and decomposition are taken into account. The thermal-mechanical FE model capable of taking into account changes in the specific volume during ferrite/austenite transformation is coupled with the relevant phase transformation model in order to allow simulation of the transient stresses due to both thermal contraction and the dilatometric effect. The model is capable of taking into account different boundary conditions for the heat transfer problem based on the available data. To improve the predictive abilities, the following two commercial FE codes, such as MSC Marc 2013.1.0 and Abaqus/Standard6.12, are used for solving the non-steady state 3D problem of the metal expansion/contraction during consecutive heating, holding and cooling stages. Although all the mentioned process steps are considered, the model is dedicated to be used for modelling the cooling stages of large forgings and castings.  

Cite as:

Sroka, J., Talamantes-Silva, J., Krzyzanowski, M., Rainforth, M. (2016). Modelling of transient temperature field and phase transformation change a way for residual stress management in large size forgings. Computer Methods in Materials Science, 16(2), 87 – 96.

Article (PDF):


Large ingot forging, Finite element analysis, Heating, Holding and cooling, Phase transformations


Babeł, J., Kulawik, A., 2011, Modelling of structural strains forheat treatment process, Modelowanie Inzynierskie, 42,11-18 (in Polish).

Bokota, A., Kulawik, A., 2006, Model of mechanical phenomenaof hardening process for low carbon steel, Archives ofFoundry, 6, 22, 83-88.

Campbell, P.C., Hawbolt, E.B., Brimacombe, J.K., 1991, Metallurgicaland Material Transactions A, 22A, 2791.

Carlone, P., Palazzo, G.S., 2011, Development and validation ofa thermos-mechanical finite element model of the steelquenching process including solid-solid phase changes,International Applied Mechanics, 46, 8, 585-594.

Carlone, P., Palazzo, G.S., Pasquino, R., 2010, Finite elementanalysis of the steel quenching process: Temperaturefield and solid-solid change, Computers and Mathematicswith Applications, 59, 585-594.

Denis, S., Farias, D., Simon, A., 1992, ISIJ International, 92,316.

Duffy, C.J., 2014, Modelling the Electron Beam Weldingof Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel, Availableonline at:, accessed: 20.05.2016.

Dye, D., Roder, B.A., Tin, S., Rist, M.A., James, J.A., Daymond,M.R., 2004, Modeling and measurement of residualstresses in a forged IN718 superalloy disc. Superalloys,The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 315-322.

Francis, J.A., Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H., Withers, P.J., 2007, Weldingresidual stresses in ferritic power plant steels, MaterialsScience and Technology, 23, 9, 1009-1020.

Gladman, T., 1997, The Physical Metallurgy of MicroalloyedSteels, The Institute of Materials, London.Gomez, M., Medina, S.F., Caruana, G., 2003, ISIJ International,42, 1228.

Grabowski, G., 2011, Modelling of thermal stresses in the TiCCr3C2composites. Ceramic materials, 63, 2, 450-453.

Jung, J., Sang, M.A., Kwang, S.H., Hwan, Y.K., 2015, Evaluationof Heat-Flux Distribution at the Inner and OuterReactor Vessel Walls Under the In-vessel Retention Through External Reactor Vessel Cooling Condition,Nuclear Engineering and Technology,47, 66-73.

Keim, E., Lidbury, D., 2012, Review of Assessment MethodsUsed in Nuclear Plant Life Management. Public reportof the UE’s NULIFE (Nuclear Life Prediction) Networkof Excellence 5.

Krzyzanowski, M., Beynon, J.H., Kuziak, R., Pietrzyk, M.,2006, Development of technique for identification ofphase transformation model parameters on the basis ofmeasurement of Dilatometric effect – direct problem,ISIJ International, 46, 1, 147-154.

Kulawik, A, Wróbe,l J., 2013, The Determination of the strainsfor the multipath heat source of the hardening process,Modelowanie Inzynierskie, 47, ISSN 1896-771X (inPolish).

Lee, B.S., Kim, M.C., Yoon, J.H., Hoon, J.H., 2010, Characterizationof High Strength and High Toughness Ni-Mo-CrLow Alloy Steels for Nuclear Application, InternationalJournal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 87, 74-80.

Milenin, A., Kustra, P., Kuziak, R., Pietrzyk, M., 2014, Modelof residual stresses in hot-rolled sheets with taking intoaccount the relaxation process and phase transformation,Procedia Engineering, 81, 108-113.

Pietrzyk, M., Kuziak, R., 1999, 2nd ESAFORM Conference OnMaterial Forming, edited by J. Covas, Guimaraes, 525.

Pous-Romero, H., Lonardelli, I., Cogsweel, D., Bhadeshia,H.K.D.H., 2013, Austenite Grain Growth in a NuclearPressure Vessel Steel, Materials Science and EngineeringA, 567, 72-79.

Roosz, A., Gacsi, Z., Fuschs, E.G., 1983, Acta Metallurgica, 31,509.

Sellars, C.M., 1980, Hot Working and Forming Processes, editedby Sellars C.M., Davies G.J., Metals Society, London, 3.

Senuma, T., Suehiro, M., Yada, H., 1992, Mathematical modelsfor predicting microstructural evolution and mechanicalproperties of hot strips, ISIJ International, 32, 423–432.

Suehiro, M., Senuma, T., Yada, H., Sato, K., 1992, Applicationof mathematical model for predicting microstructuralevolution to high carbon steels, ISIJ International, 32,433–439.

Sun, M., Hao, L., Li, S., Li, D., Li, Y., 2011, Modeling flowstress constitutive behavior of SA508-steel for nuclearreactor pressure vessels, Journal of Nuclear Materials,418, 269-280.

Xiao-Xun, Z., Zhen-Shan, C., Wen, C., Yan, L., 2009, A criterionfor void closure in large ingots during hot forging,Journal of Material Processing Technology, 209, 1950-1959.

YoungDeak, K., JongRae, C., WonByung, B., 2011: Efficientforging process to improve the closing effect of the innervoid on an ultra-large ingot, Journal of Materials ProcessingTechnology, 211, 1005-1013.