Development and verification of the scale formation model during high temperature oxidation for S235 steel

Aleksandra Przyłucka1, Agnieszka Cebo-Rudnicka1, Marcin Rywotycki1, Joanna Augustyn-Nadzieja2, Zbigniew Malinowski1

1AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Heat Engineering and Environment Protection, ul. Czarnowiejska 66, 30-059 Krakow, Poland.

2AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Physical and Powder Metallurgy, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, ul. Czarnowiejska 66, 30-059 Krakow, Poland.



Every year rapid industrialization and the following urbanization fuel the global demand for steel. The use of steel products contributes to the sustainable development of society. The scale growth mechanism accompanies the high-temperature plastic working of metals and alloys. The article focuses on the thickness of the scale formed as a result of annealing steel samples in a furnace. Samples made of S235 (A283C) steel were heated at two temperatures, 1100ºC and 1200ºC, for 8 minutes. The amount of scale formed was determined on the basis of photos taken with a light microscope. The transformed equations of steel oxidation kinetics were used in the computational part. The scale thickness obtained numerically corresponded to the scale formed in real conditions. The aim of the research was to adjust the scale growth model on steel so that it gives correct results in relation to the actual thickness of the formed oxidized layer.

Cite as:

Przyłucka, A., Cebo-Rudnicka, A., Rywotycki, M., Augustyn-Nadzieja, J., & Malinowski, Z. (2020). Development and verification of the scale formation model during high temperature oxidation for S235 steel. Computer Methods in Materials Science, 20(4), 139–146.

Article (PDF):


Scale, Numerical simulation, Model of oxidation


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