Selected aspects of manufacturing structural elements from titanium alloys combining cost-effective powder metallurgy technology and metal forming processes
AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland.
Titanium alloys are mainly used in the automotive, aviation, shipbuilding and military industries. Their main advantages are low specific gravity, resistance to cracking and corrosion, high strength as well as fatigue strength. The most important disadvantages of titanium alloys include low thermal conductivity, difficulties in their machining and high cost of manufacturing. For the latter reason, titanium alloys are primarily used for the manufacturing of highly responsible components, such as implants and aviation structures, while the remaining products are produced in limited series. In the appropriate conditions, many titanium alloys can be formed in hot working processes. At present, in the processes of manufacturing structural elements of titanium alloys, semi-finished products obtained by the casting method are commonly used. However, more and more research is being carried out on the use of powder metallurgy based material in this field. This approach opens up the possibility of decreasing production costs. As initial material, the alloy powders or mixtures of elemental powders can be used. The properties of alloy powder products are usually high and stable, however, the cost of powder production is high. Obtaining a product from titanium alloys based on a powders mixture is relatively simple and significantly cheaper. The disproportion of prices causes, that a great number of research projects realized in recent years in the field of implementation of powder metallurgy for manufacturing titanium-based products is directed towards the use of powder mixtures since this approach gives real chances for the successful implementation of costeffective titanium alloys processing technology.
Zyguła, K., Wojtaszek, M., Śleboda, T., & Lypchanskyi, O. (2019). Selected aspects of manufacturing structural elements from titanium alloys combining cost-effective powder metallurgy technology and metal forming processes. Computer Methods in Materials Science, 19(3), 122-130. https://doi.org/10.7494/cmms.2019.3.0643
Ahmed, M., Savvakin, D.G., Ivasishin, O.M., Pereloma, E.V., 2017, The effect of thermo-mechanical processing and ageing time on microstructure and mechanical properties of powder metallurgy near β titanium alloys, J. Alloys Compd., 714, 610-618.
Carman, A., Zhang, L.C., Ivasishin, O.M., Savvakin, D.G., Matviychuk, M.V., Pereloma, E.V., 2011, Role of alloying elements in microstructure evolution and alloying elements behaviour during sintering of a near-β titanium alloy, Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 528 (3), 1686-1693.
Chouirfa, H., Bouloussa, H., Migonney, V., Falentin-Daudré, C., 2019, Review of titanium surface modification techniques and coatings for antibacterial applications, Acta Biomater. 83, 37-54.
Chuan, W., Liang, H., 2018, Hot deformation and dynamic recrystallization of a near-beta titanium alloy in the β single phase region, Vacuum, 156, 384-401.
Dunstan, M.K., Paramore, J.D., Fang, Z.Z., Sun, P., 2019, Manipulation of microstructure and mechanical properties during dehydrogenation of hydrogen-sintered Ti–6Al–4V, Mater. Sci. Eng. A., 764, 138244.
Eisenbarth, E., Velten, D., Müller, M., Thull, R., Breme, J., 2004, Biocompatibility of β-stabilizing elements of titanium alloys, Biomaterials, 25, 5705–5713.
Ivasishin, O. M., Savvakin, D.G., 2010, The Impact of Diffusion on Synthesis of High-Strength Titanium Alloys from Elemental Powder Blends, Key Eng. Mater., 436, 113-121.
Kim, Y., Kim, E.P., Song, Y.-B., Lee, S.H., Kwon, Y.-S., 2014, Microstructure and mechanical properties of hot isostatically pressed Ti–6Al–4V alloy, J. Alloys Compd. 603, 207-212.
Li, Y., Ou, X., Ni, S., Song, M., 2019, Deformation behaviors of a hot rolled near-β Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe alloy, Mater. Sci. Eng. A., 742, 390-399.
Liu, B., Li, Y.P., Matsumoto, H., Liu, Y.B., Liu, Y., Tang, H.P., Chiba, A., 2010, Thermomechanical response of particulate-reinforced powder metallurgy titanium matrix composites—A study using processing map, Mater. Sci. Eng. A., 527, 4733-4741.
Ma, X., Li, F., Cao, J., Li, J., Sun, Z., Zhu, G., Zhou, S., 2018, Strain rate effects on tensile deformation behaviors of Ti- 10V-2Fe-3Al alloy undergoing stress-induced martensitic transformation, Mater. Sci. Eng. A., 710, 1-9.
Prasad, Y.V.R.K., Gegel, H.L., Doraivelu, S.M., Malas, J.C., Morgan, J.T., Lark, K.A., Barker, D.R., 1984, Modeling of dynamic material behavior in hot deformation: Forging of Ti-6242, Metall. Trans. A., 15, 1883-1892.
Shell, E.B., Semiatin, S.L., 1999, Effect of initial microstructure on plastic flow and dynamic globularization during hot working of Ti-6AI-4V, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 30, 3219-3229.
Singh, P., Pungotra, H., Kalsi, N.S., 2017, On the characteristics of titanium alloys for the aircraft applications, Mater. Today Proc., 4, 8971-–8982.
Weiss, I., Semiatin, S.L., 1999, Thermomechanical processing of alpha titanium alloys – An overview, Mater. Sci. Eng. A., 263, 243-256.
Wojtaszek, M., 2018, Opracowanie i weryfikacja cieplnomechanicznych parametrów przeróbki plastycznej wyprasek z dwufazowego stopu tytanu, Wydawnictwa AGH, Kraków, (in Polish)
Wojtaszek M., Śleboda T., 2013, Thermomechanical Processing of P/M Ti-6Al-4A alloy, Proc. 22nd Int. Conf. Metall. Mater., Brno, 364-369.
Wojtaszek, M., Śleboda, T., 2014, Design and verification of thermomechanical parameters of P/M Ti6Al4V alloy forging, J. Alloys Compd., 615, 546-550.
Wojtaszek, M., Śleboda, T., Korpała, G., 2016, Hot processing of cast and PM Ti-6Al-4V alloy, Arch. Metall. Mater. 61, 1115-1120.
Wojtaszek, M., Śleboda, T., Rumiński, M., Łuksza, J., 2014, Design and verification of the parameters of hot forging of Ti10V2Fe3Al alloy compacts, Appl. Mech. Mater., 606, 119-123.
Yang, F., Gabbitas, B., Dore, M., Ogereau, A., Raynova, S., Bolzoni, L., 2018a, On microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr alloy synthesised from elemental powder mixtures, Mater. Chem. Phys., 211, 406-413.
Yang, F., Raynova, S., Singh, A., Zhao, Q., Romero, C., Bolzoni, L., 2018b, Producing high-quality titanium alloy by a cost-effective route combining fast heating and hot processing, JOM, 70, 632-637.
Zyguła, K., Śleboda, T., Wojtaszek, M., Korpała, G., 2017, Physical modeling of hot forging of cast and P/M Ti-6Al-4V alloy, Proc. 26th Int. Metall. Mater. Conf., Brno, 1977-1982.
Zyguła, K., Wojtaszek, M., Lypchanskyi, O., Śleboda, T., Korpała, G., Prahl, U., 2019, The investigation on flow behavior of powder metallurgy Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al alloy using the prasad stability criterion, Metall. Mater. Trans. A., 50, 5314-5323.